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Subordinate Conjunctions

Function

 

place or

location

wo- where

direction

origin

woher- (from) where

destination

wohin- (to) where

extension

soweit- as, so far as, insofar as

time

point in time

als – when, as

wie – as

duration

solange – as long as

während – while

indes (geh.) – while

repetition

sooft – as often as

wenn – whenever, when

referring to previous events

als – when

nachdem – after

seitdem – since

sobald – as soon as

wie –

wenn

referring to impending events

bis – until

bevor – before

ehe – before

cause, reason

concessive (insufficientreason)

obgleich – even though, although

obschon

obwohl

obzwar

wenn auch

wenngleich

wennschon

wiewohl; as well as

ohne daß (negative) – without

es sei denn, dass – unless

conditional (possiblereason)

falls – if

wenn – if

sofern – provided (that)

wo(fern) (old) – if

angenommen (daß)

im Falle daß – in the case that

vorausgesetzt daß – assuming that

causal (actual reason)

da – because, since

weil – because

deswegen weil – because

umsomehr als – all the more considering or as

zumal (decisive reason) – especially or particularly as, since

purpose,

consequence

final (purpose, goal)

damit – so that

daß – that

auf daß (elevated style) (old) – that

um (w/infinitive phrase) – in order to

consecutive (consequence,

effect)

daß – that

so daß – so that

weshalb – why

ohne (w/inf. clause) – without

ohne daß (non-occurring consequence) – without + gerund

als daß (impossible consequence) – too + adj. + to + inf.

manner

comparative

wie (equality) – as

als (inequality) – than

soviel (degree) – as much

soweit (degree) – as far

wie wenn (comparison within fact) – as when

als ob (comparison contrary to fact) – as if or though

als wenn (comparison contrary to fact) – as if or though

adversative (contrast)

während – while

indes – however

indessen – however

wohingegen – whereas, while

(an)statt (w/inf) – instead of + gerund

statt daß (substitute) – instead

instrumental (means,

accompanyingcircumstance)

indem – by, while

dadurch daß – by + gerund + that

ohne daß (negative) – without + gerund

proportion

je . . . desto – the . . . the (the + comparative + the + comparative)

je . . . je – the . . . the (the + comparative + the + comparative)

je . . . umso – the . . . the (the + comparative + the + comparative)

umso . . . je- the . . . the (the + comparative + the + comparative)

je nachdem – depending on